Characteristics of Lavanneh sunflower seed:
Levante cultivar is one of the hybrid and middle clay cultivars.
Length of ripening period of sunflower seeds of Lavanneh cultivar:
The growth period of Levante sunflower seeds from seed germination to harvest time is about 120 to 125 days.
The beginning of flowering of sunflower nuts of Lavaneh cultivar:
65 days after germination
Completion of inoculation period and yellowing behind the head and stop irrigation:
90 days after germination
Genetic potential of Levanene cultivar sunflower nuts: production above 5 tons of seeds per hectare
Seed length greater than 2 cm
Weight of 1000 sunflower seeds of Lavaneh cultivar: 140-120 grams
Percentage of Lavanneh sunflower oil: less than 35%
The amount of protein in sunflower seeds of Lavanneh cultivar: 26%
The ratio of kernel to sunflower husk of Lavanneh cultivar: high
Suitable number of plants at harvest time: 42-35 thousand plants per hectare
Seed required per hectare: 5 kg
This hybrid is very attractive to pollinating insects
Compatible with different environmental conditions and soil types
Steps of planting Levante edible sunflower seeds:
Soil suitable for planting:
Sunflower grows in a wide range of soils, but the soil is very heavy buildings destroyed them because of inhibition of root development for Sunflower Growing considered limiting. Sunflowers grow well in neutral to alkaline soils with a pH of 5.6 to 8. The performance of sunflowers in well-drained sandy soils is higher than that of clay soils. Salinity will stay thin and short stem and plant growth and seed and oil properties (such as delayed germination and growth ... stratified soil salinity of about 2 percent to about 40 percent salt reduces performance. Sunflower with roots undeveloped relatively tolerant to drought, provided the depth and soil structure limiting root growth there. Sunflower partly due to soil salinity resistant however bear the beans or soybeans is in the range of pH Neutral Grows well.
Land preparation and tillage
It is very important in sunflower cultivation. Because the sunflower is that the soil structure is highly sensitive and deep root of this plant for the development and deployment requires a soil hollow. In such conditions, the heating, ventilation, moisture for germination and growth of seedlings in a manner satisfactory adequate گــردد. The difference in growth and development of sunflowers in both unprepared soils and prepared and suitable soils is considerable. Depending on the crop of sunflowers, suitable soil should be prepared and this should be done as soon as possible. If the sunflower is harvested after the wheat and barley, the straw must be collected on the ground, because the accumulation of straw and stubble in front of the sowers will prevent it from moving and prevent it from moving. Coriander, which does not have much residue, is simpler, but if sunflowers are sown after rapeseed and beans, the vertical discs should be piled on top of each other after deep plowing.
In general, the order of tillage operations for the second crop of sunflowers is as follows:
1- Collecting the remnants of the previous product
2- Deep plowing
3- Hitting a heavy disk and, if possible, two vertical disks
4 - Beating the retort (sometimes it is not necessary to hit the retainer)
5. Troweling Most farmers remove the troweling operation from their work plan and consider it less important, while one of the most important land preparation operations is the one in which the trowel is planted. The maturation and eventually uniformity of the product is achieved. On the other hand, the unevenness of the land has led to the uneven distribution of water on the farm and has caused many problems for the farmers themselves. Of course, tillering is more important in sunflower-like crops than sunflower, because it has smaller seeds, and tillering and planting depth are more important. The most important means of preparing and preparing the land in the cultivation of sunflowers include: plow, disc, trowel, pruner, cultivator. These devices soften the soil and mix plant residues with it, causing the soil to soften, increasing ventilation, increasing humidity, and increasing biological biological activity. On the other hand, submerging the soil causes the soil to become warmer and nitrogen and potassium to increase in plant availability.
Date of planting
Timely cultivation is one of the most important factors in the success of sunflower cultivation. The proper history of sunflowers depends on the climate of each region. The best time to cultivate is when the minimum temperature has reached 10-8 degrees Celsius, which is suitable for germination. During the growing season required cultivar, exposure to pollination period with insect activity and escape of pollination period and early sowing from severe summer heat
It is one of the determining factors in choosing the right date. Since the growing season in most parts of Iran is longer than necessary for sunflowers, this plant can be grown in a wide range of dates. Operating temperature in phenological stages of a plant is why the total growing degree days (GDD (better than the total number of days to predict each of the stages of the growth period plant. Sunflower in terms of response to day length indifferent, but as we know, sunflower thermophilic and resistant to cold Figure 1 (Farvzdn in agriculture Sunflower 6 Agriculture Sunflower and weather conditions warm better performance. Hence hours of sunny weather as much as possible is the sunflower yield positive effect will be to do development stage sunflower 2800 2600 temperature from planting to harvesting needs. the most suitable temperature for photosynthesis in the leaves between 35 and 30 ° C. sunflower thermophilic and if the average temperature day and night temperature less than 10 degrees No more than 35 degrees Celsius, growth will be desirable. The temperature changes are high and the new buds of the sunflower grow well in the cold phase of the C-5 degrees Celsius. Sunflowers also germinate at a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius, but as mentioned, the appropriate temperature for germination is between 10 and 8 degrees Celsius and 24 degrees Celsius. Fluctuations in temperature during granulation have a strong effect on the composition of fatty acids. At 21-40 degrees Celsius, the oil content of the grain increases, but at a temperature above 35 degrees Celsius, it has a negative effect on the oil content of the grain. According to the above-mentioned issues, the history of different regions has been determined as follows:
Temperate and cold regions: mid-April to late May
Tropical regions: late January to mid-March
Suitable machine for growing sunflower
Sunflowers can be planted with ordinary pneumatic seeders. In general, all seeders that can lay the seed on the back can be used for sunflower planting. Therefore, the seeds that are used for planting corn, sugar beet, etc. should be sown by selecting a suitable distribution page. Of course, pneumatic sunflower seeds are more suitable in this regard due to their high accuracy.
Sunflower seed planting depth
Observance of planting depth in any crop is considered a principle. If the seed is sown too deep, the plant may germinate and emerge from the soil up to twice as long as usual. And this is important in several ways: the seed's food reserves are exhausted and will not grow green, or the plant will grow poorly or grow, or it will take a long time to grow. There will be. In other words, the growing period of the plant from planting to harvesting is long and harvesting may be rainy. The plant may be attacked by soil fungi before leaving the soil due to the prolongation of the germination period. After the establishment of Figure 3 (germination and emergence of sunflower cotyledon leaves from the soil of sunflower cultivation 9 seeds at the appropriate depth, in the presence of moisture and the appropriate temperature, begin to germinate less. ° C. the moisture for germination and plant growth, in this case about 50 to 40 percent and achieve soil water potential is 1 -Up to 2 -Atmsfr. with regard to the proposed Sunflower planting depth of 63 cm Depth of soil to a pan, which impedes rooting, is more than 6 cm. It starts to dry out and the seed can not germinate completely and safely, unless the amount of surface and plentiful irrigation is strong enough to germinate. Sunflowers are generally planted on flat beds or in shallow weather in rainy conditions, but under cultivation conditions the crop grows on the cover. Depth of seed sowing is 3-6 cm on the base and 3-5 cm on the flat bed. Planting depth is also recommended in heavy soils 3-5 cm and in light soils 5-7 cm.
Sunflower seed planting arrangement
Sunflowers can be grown both mechanically and traditionally. Its mechanized sowing is done with common tools and machines and seeders, in which the operation of creating furrow sowing and sowing seeds and soil on it at the same time.
Observance of planting depth in any crop is considered a principle. If the seed is sown too deep, the plant may germinate and emerge from the soil up to twice as long as usual. And this is important in several ways: the seed's food reserves are exhausted and will not grow green, or the plant will grow poorly or grow, or it will take a long time to grow. There will be. In other words, the growing period of the plant from planting to harvesting is long and harvesting may be rainy. The plant may be attacked by soil fungi before leaving the soil due to the prolongation of the germination period. After the establishment of Figure 3 (germination and emergence of sunflower cotyledon leaves from the soil of sunflower cultivation 9 seeds at the appropriate depth, in the presence of moisture and the appropriate temperature, begin to germinate less. ° C. the moisture for germination and plant growth, in this case about 50 to 40 percent and achieve soil water potential is 1 -Up to 2 -Atmsfr. with regard to the proposed Sunflower planting depth of 63 cm Depth of soil to a pan, which impedes rooting, is more than 6 cm. It starts to dry out and the seed can not germinate completely and safely, unless the amount of surface and plentiful irrigation is strong enough to germinate. ى باشــد. Sunflowers are generally planted on flat beds or in shallow weather in rainy conditions, but under cultivation conditions the crop grows on the cover. Depth of seed sowing is 3-6 cm on the base and 3-5 cm on the flat bed. Planting depth is also recommended in heavy soils 3-5 cm and in light soils 5-7 cm.
It takes, but the traditional casting method is done by hand and can be done in small pieces. It is better to plant sunflowers in a row in large fields, because this way the operation is done easily. The row spacing or between the planting lines in the first drawing is usually 75 cm and in the second drawing is considered 60-50 cm. The distance between two plants is 20-30 cm in irrigated cultivation and 30-40 cm in rainfed cultivation. In irrigated agriculture, the density is 6-8 plants per square meter and in rainfed agriculture with rainfall of more than 500 mm, the appropriate density is 5-7 plants per square meter.
Basically, in the first crop and in the later cultivars, the distance between the rows and the plants should be considered more than each other, because the plant grows bigger and has more air volume, if you are in the air, if you are in the second crop. , Can be planted rows close to each other. If parts of cultivation is small and the field with hand-picked to be considered within the plants on row raised to class manufacturing large that their perception is comfortable, but if the parts about growing big and harvested by combine the It is considered that the distance between the plants on the line is less selected so that the smaller classes reach uniformity and mechanized harvesting is facilitated. Sunflower before flowering Sun oriented to the morning, according to the Sun and the movement of the sun to the west, as well as the move but as soon as flowering stage tab of flowering, according to the North-East and East-oriented Therefore, if hand-picking is considered, the direction of the crop is chosen as far north-south as possible so that the pick-up can be easily done. Seed Consumption The amount of seed used per hectare depends on the fineness and accuracy of the seed, the vigor, the cultivar, the time of sowing and the late or early maturity of the cultivar. The amount of seed in row or mechanized sowing is usually 5-15 kg per hectare and for hand sowing is 15-20 kg per hectare. If the criterion for sowing is rainfed and irrigated, the seed rate for irrigated sowing is 6-9 kg / ha and for sowing is 5-7 kg / ha. The amount of seed required for the cultivars is available and for the second crop it is recommended 6-7 kg, in which case the number of plants per hectare is about 75 thousand plants. Seed disinfection is usually done to prevent seed rot and decay, and it is also used to prevent insect damage. Disinfection is usually done with fungicides such as granozane, 12 crops of sunflower and mercury at a rate of 2 per thousand. The use of gacho poison to disinfect the seeds protects the plant against pests for the first 6 weeks after sowing.
Irrigation of sunflower field:
Although sunflower is a plant that is somewhat drought tolerant, achieving high yields requires a low humidity supply. All stages of plant life are somewhat sensitive to dehydration, but three to three weeks before flowering, three to three weeks after the most sensitive time, dehydration. Sunflowers need 6-7 times irrigation during their growth and development period, which are: soil water, time of root establishment, stem formation, star-forming stage, flowering and sowing. Irrigation is necessary for the plant to grow and establish itself. During the stem stage, as a new member emerges, the plant needs plenty of water. In the stage of bud formation (or star formation), dehydration causes the grain to become thin and hollow.
During the flowering stage, dehydration causes grain porosity. Lack of timely irrigation at the time of grain filling, which is the most sensitive stage, causes the grain to become hollow and thin. Adequate water supply should be provided at all stages of plant growth. Providing sufficient moisture after sowing for germination as well as after changing the initial stage of growth to the main stage causes the plant to grow rapidly and has an effect on increasing the amount of product. In general, susceptibility to dehydration in sunflowers is high from the time of flower bud formation until the seeds are fully dyed. At this point must be made that crop irrigation when soil water potential reached to about 5.0 atmospheres or more than 50% moisture of 20 to 30 cm deep with medium texture is not out if the stress The period of 20 days after the fall of the petals leads to a decrease in the percentage of seed oil.
Usually, in each irrigation, the soil reaches the field capacity up to 150-50 cm depending on the stage of plant growth and soil permeability. Usually d
Irrigation activities and irrigation period depend on the region, climate, heat intensity and soil texture. Sunflower is a whole plant resistant to drought and in areas with up to 500 mm of rain per year, it can be cultivated in the form of rain. If water shortage occurs at the beginning of the vegetative stage, only a decrease in leaf efficiency occurs and as a result the number of leaves decreases but the leaf area increases. It should be borne in mind that although water stress is observed in all plants, it is more pronounced in the leaves because not all plant organs are equally affected by water stress through evaporation and transpiration.
Sunflower harvest stage
Sunflowers need three months to five months from planting to late planting, depending on the size of the plant. Harvest of sunflowers is when the back of the head changes from green to yellow and tends to turn brown, and the leaves turn small. At this time, the sunflower is physiologically ripe and ready to be harvested. Harvesting usually takes place before the parts are sufficiently and properly dried.
At this time, the moisture content of the grains may reach 40 to 50 percent, but the moisture content of the grain is 8 to 9 percent, so drying the product is necessary. Seed ripening begins gradually from the outside to the inside and continues to the inside. Early harvesting sometimes reduces yields and delays in harvesting cause the seeds to fall and grow. In general, it occurs when the back of the head turns yellowish brown and the side leaves turn brown when they are in the oven. In the case of hand picking, they usually take the density and use cultivars that produce fewer lateral stems and only have a large stalk at the end of the stem. In order for maximum oil yield to be achieved, the heads of the sunflowers must be fully ripe before harvest, as the amount of dry matter can be increased by 100% in the last two weeks. The appearance of the seeds is not a good indicator for the history of harvesting because the ripe seeds have a lot of moisture. The maximum humidity for storing seeds should not be more than 8-9%.
How to harvest sunflower
Removal is mechanized and traditional. Harvesting of dwarf cultivars is possible with the addition of cereals with the addition of a special sunflower harvest. Of course, a series of special settings must be made so that the data is not broken. Adjust the attachment speed, including the forward speed of the combine, and the speed of the cylinders or knobs, and adjust the knobs and knobs. For leaf shedding Gramaxon herbicide can be used for leaf fall and then harvested. Figures tall single by manually picked and then heads for a few days in the sun so broad that the back according to the sun in this way not only the better to dry, but the amount of damages birds during drying reduced It becomes. Dry stalks are threshed with a grain thresher or combine and after bagging they are bagged. In the lower levels of the floor, the grains can be separated from the floor by pounding the wood into layers. Of course, in recent years, chicken stuffing or a similar tool has been used to separate grains according to the method, which has a high speed of action. Figure 16 (Mechanized Harvesting of Sunflower 32) Sunflower Cultivation The best time to harvest is when the seeds are fully ripe. The time is 50%, depending on the number of seeds sown.
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