Introduction of white seed sorghum
Sorghum has different uses due to its different types. Two types of sorghum are very popular, one is grain sorghum and the other is forage sorghum. 90% of the sorghum cultivated area in the world is grain sorghum, so sorghum is considered a grain in the world, which has the highest area under 6 sorghum seeds in India and the highest production of grain sorghum in the United States. Grain sorghum is used in a number of cereals for human consumption, livestock, and poultry, starch industry, alcohol making, and adhesive preparation.
Seed sorghum is cultivated for its seed production, which is used for human feed, livestock, and poultry, and for the starch and alcohol industries. This type of sorghum is used more than other types and is mostly cultivated in the United States and Africa
Sorghum is a short-day, annual plant, made from dark cereals and sorghum.
White seed sorghum seed shape:
Sorghum grain is like other wheat grains and is more or less spherical. The seeds are different in color and are cream, yellow, red, and brown and have a silver or pearl luster. The endosperm of the seed is white or yellow. The weight of a thousand sorghum seeds is between 16 to 40 grams.
Steps of sowing white seed sorghum seeds:
Soil suitable for planting white seed sorghum:
The soil required for sorghum should be strong and deep enough, although it is not very sensitive to different types of soils, the best soil for growing this plant is sandy clay that is rich in nutrients. This plant grows better in soils with slightly acidic pH than in alkaline soils. Sorghum is not very sensitive to soil salinity but its yield is reduced.
Climate suitable for planting white seed sorghum:
Sorghum needs high heat and relatively dry weather for growth and development and the most suitable climate for this plant is a hot and dry climate. Sorghum needs a temperature of 10 ° C for germination and the most suitable temperature for growth and development of sorghum is between 28 and 33 degrees Celsius. Sorghum grows well in temperate subtropical and Mediterranean areas and its cultivation is common in those areas, but this plant can be grown up to 2500 meters. Sorghum is sensitive to cold and does not grow well in cold regions. Grain sorghum is highly resistant to wind and can withstand temperatures as high as 40 degrees Celsius.
If the temperature in the flocking stage of sorghum is more than 26 degrees Celsius, the grain yield will decrease, however, this plant has relatively good resistance to drought and dehydration.
Crop rotation of white seed sorghum:
Sorghum in crop rotation is better to be in the first rotation and the most common sorghum rotation is as follows: sorghum-wheat-cotton fallow-sorghum-wheat alfalfa-sorghum-wheat barley
Nutrition and fertilization of white seed sorghum:
The amount of fertilizer used depends on the sorghum cultivar, soil type, and climatic conditions of the region. Grain sorghum absorbs about 25 to 30 kg of nitrogen, 10 to 15 kg of phosphorus, and 8 to 10 kg of potash from the soil to produce one ton of seeds, stems, and leaves, so according to the expected yield of the product, n-p-k chemical fertilizers should be used. In dry areas, it is recommended to add fertilizer to crops before sorghum in autumn or winter so that the plant can use these fertilizers in spring and summer, but in wet areas that have enough water, fertilizer distribution is suitable when sowing seeds. In late cultivars, the plant needs more fertilizer and in light soils, nitrogen fertilizers are usually used after planting and several times as a road. Soil fertility is very effective in sorghum yield. Usually, 250 kg of phosphate fertilizer, 300 kg of potash fertilizer, and 300 kg of nitrogen fertilizer are used per hectare. .
Land preparation for planting white seed sorghum:
The soil is plowed deeply in the fall and disced twice in the spring to prepare the soil for cultivation. The seedbed should be smooth and free of weeds.
Planting date of white seed sorghum:
The planting date of sorghum depends on the climatic conditions and the type of cultivar. Sorghum is planted in early spring and when the soil temperature is suitable and at least 10 degrees Celsius.
How to plant white seed sorghum:
Sorghum is planted in the main ground in a row. The distance between the lines depends on the soil type and type of cultivar. And varies between 40 to 70 cm and the distance between plants in rows is between 5 to 20 cm. Plant density per square meter is between 30 to 50 plants and about 250 thousand plants per hectare. The amount of seed used is between 5 to 10 kg per hectare for grain production and about 40 kg per hectare for forage production.
White grain sorghum tiller:
Sorghum has good tillering power and the number of tillers depends on the cultivar and soil fertility, temperature, and humidity.
Steps after planting white seed sorghum:
To prepare one kilogram of sorghum dry matter, 332 liters of water is used, which is less than corn with 368, barley with 434, and wheat with 514 liters of water, but timely irrigation of sorghum is effective in increasing yield according to the conditions of the region. The average irrigation period is 12 days. Eliminating field weeds and applying nitrogen fertilizer 1-2 times as a road will increase yield.
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