Characteristics of common Iranian millet or Persian millet:
Scientific name: Pennisetum miliaceum
Common millet is mostly grown for grain production and its growth period is 65 to 80 days. It is self-pollinating.The weight of a thousand seeds is 5 to 9 grams. The origin of this millet is from Asia, especially China, and its cultivation is common in East Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea, America, Britain, India, Pakistan, Iraq, Central Europe, and Russia. It occupies about 15% of the cultivated area of millets in the world and is the main cultivated type of millet in Iran.
In what ways can Iranian coarse millet be consumed and what are its uses: Common millet seed is widely used in meat poultry industry such as turkey, pheasant, partridge and quail. In terms of grain protein, it competes with wheat and sorghum and has a higher quantity and quality than corn. Its fodder is used in livestock breeding.It can be used as a cover product and green fertilizer. It also grows well in mixed cultivation with soybeans and beans.
Which regions are prone to millet cultivation?
Pearl millet in tropical and temperate regions (regions with hot summers) and small millets (foxtail and ordinary) in temperate and cold regions (and in hot regions provided the planting date is observed if the goal is to produce seeds) show proper growth.
What should be the soil conditions for millet growth:
Millet can grow in a wide range of soils, but it is sensitive to drought conditions and the best soils for its growth are sandy loam soils with good drainage. Millet is able to produce crops in a wide range of soil pH, not too alkaline. Millet is tolerant to salinity and its germination is delayed in light conditions.
What are the stages of land preparation for millet cultivation:
The millet land can be plowed both in autumn and in spring, but it is better to plow a few weeks before sowing in spring to remove weeds and then soften the ground with a disk and collect the excess grass residues. It is obvious that after each plowing (spring and autumn), before sowing seeds, one should apply a disc. A deep plow (at least 15 cm) with a reversible plow followed by 2-3 vertical discs can provide optimal conditions for millet cultivation. Especially after autumn plowing and before planting in spring, the seed bed should be completely softened with a disk. Due to the small size of Aruzzan seeds, the seed bed should be soft, dense and flat. Millet does not need much food, but chemical fertilizers should be given to the previous plant so that millet can use these materials left in the ground. Millet needs nitrogen and phosphorus more than any food.
When is the best time to plant millet:
The best planting time is late spring when the ambient air has warmed up enough. The millet land can be plowed both in autumn and in spring, but it is better to plow a few weeks before sowing in spring to remove weeds and then soften the ground with a disk and collect the excess grass residues. It is obvious that after each plowing (spring and autumn), before sowing seeds, one should apply a disk. Especially after autumn plowing and before planting in spring, the seed bed should be completely softened with a disc. Due to the small size of Aruzzan seeds, the seed bed should be soft, dense and flat. Millet does not need much food, but chemical fertilizers should be given to the previous plant so that millet can use these materials left in the ground. Millet needs nitrogen and phosphorus more than any food
What is the amount of seed used, the planting distance and the method of planting millet:
In order to harvest enough and good seeds, consumption of 4 to 5 kg per hectare is enough, and the optimal density is 175,000 to 200,000 plants per hectare. The above density will be achieved with a row spacing of 45 cm and a distance between each plant of 10-12 cm. The seed planting depth is 2-3 cm. Millet is generally cultivated immediately after plowing and by seeding. The cultivation of pearl millet with a special seed machine is the best method and not only guarantees the best germination, but also ensures uniform and good dispersion of the plant.
How should the crop rotation of millet be adjusted:
Since millet does not have dormancy due to its strong stems, it is possible to alternately plant millets after leguminous plants. Millet is usually alternated with sorghum and groundnut. Millet gives a good crop after weed crops. In Alborz areas, it is planted in a rotation with wheat after summer, in the south of Khorasan, it is cultivated after barley or other wheat crops. In this situation, early millets are used.
Recommendations for steps after planting millet:
What are the nutritional requirements of the millet plant:
In general, millets need little nutrients due to their short growing length and small root volume. In millets, it is recommended to use 50 kg/ha of urea fertilizer at the time of planting and use 50 to 100 kg/ha of urea after each harvest.
Millet plant is watered every few days:
Millet has a good resistance to dehydration, but to produce more and better fodder, 7 to 10 days of irrigation is suitable.
How to fight against millet field weeds:
To get rid of weeds, it is better to use a cultivator in the early stages of plant growth. In the later stages of growth, it will be impossible to grow grass due to intense shading and multiple cuttings, and there will be no need to fight weeds.
How to fight millet pests and diseases:
No other diseases have been reported in small millets, except for a number of leaf diseases in the early stages of growth. In the reproductive stage, the only obvious black spot disease has been reported for some common millet cultivars, especially early cultivars, which, like all grain diseases, is the best way to combat seed disinfection with one of the common fungicides. In general, there has been no report of a key pest in the whole country, but some insignificant and non-economic damages from stem-eating pests such as the stem-eating bee have been reported from the northern regions of the country. Among the important pests that attack the bushes in the early stages of growth, we can mention the ringworm (Agrotis) and the leaf-eating worm (Caradrina), which while carrying out agricultural control (including observing the planting date and fall plowing) can be used carbariol insecticide for agrotis. In other cases, due to the uneconomical nature of the fight and the direct use of the plant to produce meat and milk, chemical control is not recommended.
How to harvest millet:
In millets, the best harvest time for green fodder is the emergence of panicles, and the best harvest time for seed production is the color change of the panicles and the yellowing of the lower leaves. It takes 40 to 50 days from planting to harvesting depending on the type.
What tools can be used to harvest millet:
In pearl millets, it is possible to use a grain combiner to harvest seeds by applying some settings. But in order to harvest fodder, forage harvesting machines for plants such as corn and sorghum are needed.
What are the uses of millet plant and its seeds:
Because millet needs a certain area for growth and development, and in addition, it has a compromise with different types of soil and produces enough crops in a very short period of time, its dry fodder has become very important. Today, millet fodder is not able to compete with "Sudangrass" (a type of ear corn) because under the same conditions, the yield of Sudangrass per unit area is up to three times more than millet; Also, Sudan grass fodder has better quality than millet. Each type of millet is used for fodder in a special way. If we count Pennisetum sp. under millets, its green fodder is much better than millet green fodder (Setaria sp.), because firstly, there is a lot of Pennisetum sp. green fodder, and secondly, after harvesting It grows again and produces fodder. Pennisetum and Echinochloa sp., which is similar to millet, is used for silage more than millet due to its green and juicy fodder.
In general, millet can be harvested for dry fodder like other forage plants. Harvesting is mostly done by a weeder. In sunny areas, harvesting should be done early in the morning. After picking and before baling, the fodder should be left to lose its excess moisture. Harvesting millet to prepare dry fodder for cattle and horses should be done before flowering because at this stage the value of fodder is higher than the milk stage. In general, millet dry fodder is not very palatable, and for that reason, its dry fodder value is lower than other gramineous fodder plants. Millet food can be compared with Phleum sp. and Sorghum halopense.
If dry millet fodder is fed to a horse for a long time, it will cause lameness or arthritis and increase the activity of kidneys. Probably, the high activity of the kidneys when consuming dry millet fodder depends on the millet grains present in the fodder. Due to its surface roots and inability to grow again after grazing, millet is not a suitable plant for pasture construction because the surface roots of millet are easily removed from the ground by animals.
What are the therapeutic properties and industrial uses of millet:
In traditional medicine, it is stated that millet is thermally cooling in nature, and has anti-depressant and insomnia properties, relaxing, anti-fungal, repels mucus, blood fat and breast problems, is an astringent, and its flour treats diarrhea. It is bilious and also regulates body temperature. Millet soup is useful in vomiting and indigestion, and regular use of its soup can be effective for nausea and morning sickness.
To prevent heart diseases and diabetes, although barley is known to protect the heart, millet is one of the grains that has the same properties.
Whole grains are the main sources of fiber, and according to evidence, people with the highest dietary fiber intake had a 29% lower risk of CVD compared to those with the lowest fiber intake, but these beneficial effects are not only related to fiber, but whole grains from They are also rich in minerals, antioxidants, lignans and other phytonutrients.
Millet is a rich source of magnesium and one cup of cooked millet provides 19% of the daily magnesium requirement of the body. Studies have shown that magnesium lowers blood pressure and reduces heart attacks, especially in people with atherosclerosis. Magnesium also reduces the severity of shortness of breath and the frequency of migraine attacks. Compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids (pufa), oligosaccharides, plant sterols and stanols and vitamin B3 present in millet reduce cholesterol.
Millet nutrients include 15% protein, high amounts of fiber, B complex vitamins (niacin, folacin and riboflavin), minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, potassium, calcium and zinc, essential amino acids methionine, lecithin and vitamin A and rich It is one of phytochemicals such as phytic acid. Millet is least allergenic and most digestible. Millet is a gluten-free ingredient that can be used for celiac patients. Millet is rich in calcium and helps strengthen bones and reduces the risk of osteoporosis. Also, because of the iron present in millet, it can be useful for people suffering from anemia. Also, millet is considered as an energy-rich substance containing high nutrients for athletes and children, and when combined with legumes, it is an excellent protein, especially for people with A vegetarian diet is ideal.
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