What are the characteristics of brown sesame?
Sesame plant product is one of the important edible oilseeds in hot and semi-hot regions and it is one of the oldest oilseeds in the world. The original home of sesame is India and it is also called Jaljalan.
The low cost of production, having a suitable sales market, as well as the possibility of exporting roasted seeds and its flour to the countries of the southern border of the Persian Gulf, have provided a suitable environment for the cultivation of this product. Sesame has protein, vitamins B, D, E, F and lecithin. Sesame is a heat-loving plant and is cultivated after cereals, especially wheat and barley. The growing period is short and about 90 to 110 days and it needs warm air and plenty of light and is sensitive to low temperature. Sesame is known as a drought- and heat-resistant product, and it is relatively sensitive to high soil moisture and lack of ventilation, and for this reason, it is necessary to control sesame irrigation. This plant is resistant to drought and sensitive to salinity and grows in all kinds of soils provided that there is no limitation in terms of ventilation and drainage. However, it prefers soils with medium texture.
What are the characteristics of the ideal soil for sesame cultivation:
Sesame can be cultivated in all kinds of soils provided that it is suitable for drainage and ventilation. Soils with medium texture provide more favorable conditions. Sesame is sensitive to soil salinity, and the amount of salinity that causes minor damage to cotton cultivation destroys the sesame crop.
When is the best date to plant sesame seeds:
In determining the date of planting sesame, it is important to pay attention to the appropriate temperature for greening - the stability of the air temperature and the time of flowering, because it leads to the non-fertilization of the flowers and the number of formed capsules decreases. Planting can be done when the daily average air temperature reaches 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. Sesame is one of the last spring crops to be cultivated. In tropical regions such as the southeast of Fars province, sesame cultivation is often done after harvesting wheat and barley. In cotton growing areas, sesame can be planted one to two weeks after cotton planting.
What is the amount of fertilizer used for sesame cultivation per hectare:
Sesame fertilizer needs are similar to cotton. This plant needs nitrogen, phosphorus and potash for optimal growth. The required chemical fertilizer is 150 to 200 kilograms of ammonium phosphate and 100 kilograms of urea per hectare, and in case of potassium deficiency, 100 kilograms per hectare of potassium sulfate is also suggested. In commercial crops, it is necessary to use nitrogen vinegar to achieve optimal performance. It should be used when the height of the plant has reached 20 cm.
How to plant sesame seeds:
Due to the fact that sesame seeds are very sensitive and weak in the early stages of growth and germination, it is necessary to be very careful in preparing the ground before planting. The land must be completely free of weeds and if it is cultivated with irrigation, the land must be well leveled. The slope of the land should be adjusted so that the water does not catch any part of the land on the seed bed and there is no risk of closing the basket during the germination and growth stage of the plant. Depending on the type of soil, the planting depth changes and usually varies between 2 and 5 centimeters. The planting depth also changes depending on the planting time and soil moisture level. Sufficient care should be taken in setting the seed sprinkler and preparing the seed bed so that the seeds are spread evenly and there is no need for successive thinnings.
How to water the brown sesame plant:
Sesame is usually resistant to drought. However, sesame seedlings are too sensitive to water shortage. It is also sensitive to lack of water during flowering and early seed setting. Depending on the type of cultivated land, irrigation is carried out by means of irrigation or flood irrigation. Especially in the first stages, this plant is sensitive to root rot and other fungal diseases caused by swamping or excess moisture. Cultivating sesame seeds in a pyramid increases the percentage of germination and also accelerates it. Depending on the conditions of the region, the irrigation cycle is usually once every 14 days after greening.
How much seed is needed for brown sesame per hectare:
The plant density and planting distance for sesame planting varies from 45 to 70 cm due to the different branching type of the plant. The distance between plants is not less than 5.2 cm and not more than 15 cm. Based on different density and weight of 1000 seeds, the amount of seed required per hectare is variable, but in general, the amount of seed used to cultivate one hectare fluctuates from 4 to 6 kilograms. Disinfection of seeds is usually done with benomyl 2 per thousand.
How to fight brown sesame weeds:
In order to fight and prevent the spread of weeds, you can use Turflan herbicide at the rate of 2 liters per hectare. The time of use is before the construction of the piles and piles, and after use, it is necessary to mix it with the soil at a depth of 10 cm with two perpendicular discs in order to have a proper effect. In the growth stages, this plant is not able to compete with sensitive weeds, so weeding is necessary at this stage. In row cultivation, using a goose claw or a light cultivator is the best way to fight weeds. It is also recommended to use the correct interval program. Also, doing an irrigation during the preparation of the land with the aim of growing weeds and fighting them has a significant effect.
How to harvest brown sesame:
As the harvest time approaches, the lower leaves start to turn yellow and the lower capsules open at the same time. Capsules are processed in sesame from bottom to top. A delay in harvesting to reach all the capsules will cause the seeds to fall from the lower capsules and yield loss. Therefore, the bushes are harvested before all the capsules reach. After harvesting, the bunches of sesame are exposed to the air flow vertically for one to two weeks so that all the capsules are opened while drying and the seeds can be removed from them. Then the seeds can be collected by shaking the plant in the place intended for it. In order to prevent the loss of yield and the loss of sesame seeds, the floor of the warehouse or the threshing area of sesame plants should be insulated with suitable equipment. It is recommended to cement the warehouse or spread the tarpaulin.
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